CBD (Cannabidiol)

c-rayc-ray germinatingPosts: 14,732
edited March 2013 in Medicinal Use
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol
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Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in Cannabis. It is a major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in its extracts.[1]

CBD alone is not intoxicating, but it appears to moderate the euphoric effect of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is an isomer of cannabidiol and add a sedative quality.[2] Some research, however, indicates that CBD can increase alertness.[3] It may decrease the rate of THC clearance from the body, perhaps by interfering with the metabolism of THC in the liver. CBD does not appear to affect either the CB1 or CB2 receptors.[4]

Medically, it appears to relieve convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, and nausea, and to inhibit cancer cell growth.[5] Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia.[6] In November 2007 it was reported that CBD reduces growth of aggressive human breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces their invasiveness. It thus represents the first non-toxic exogenous agent that can lead to down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.[7][8] It is also a neuroprotective antioxidant.[9]


Medicinal use

In April 2005, Canadian authorities approved the marketing of Sativex, a mouth spray for multiple sclerosis to alleviate pain. Sativex contains tetrahydrocannabinol together with cannabidiol. It is marketed in Canada by GW Pharmaceuticals.

Initial research is showing that CBD has an effect in reducing schizophrenic symptoms in patients.[10]


Pharmacology

Cannabidiol does not bind to CB1 or CB2 receptors but it does block the effects of cannabinoid agonists by an unknown indirect way.[11] Recently it was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen.[12]

Cannabidiol has also been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth, with low potency in non-cancer cells. Although the inhibitory mechanism is not yet fully understood, Ligresti et al suggest that "cannabidiol exerts its effects on these cells through a combination of mechanisms that include either direct or indirect activation of CB2 and TRPV1 receptors, and induction of oxidative stress, all contributing to induce apoptosis."[13] In November 2007, researchers at the California Pacific Medical Center reported that CBD shows promise for controlling the spread of metastatic breast cancer. In vitro CBD downregulates the activity of the gene Id-1 which is responsible for tumor metastasis.[7]


Chemistry

Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. At room temperature it is a colorless crystalline solid.[14] In strongly basic medium and the presence of air it is oxidized to a quinone.[15] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC.[16] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[17][18][19]


Legal Status

Cannabidiol is a Schedule I drug in the USA, despite having no psychoactive effects and no known abuse potential. The strict legal status may be due to the fact that CBD has been shown to inhibit the anxiety that THC can induce at high doses ~0.5mg/kg[20] and also how easily CBD could be converted to THC, as outlined above.


References

[1] Grlie, L (1976). "A comparative study on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samples of cannabis resin". Bulletin on Narcotics 14: 37–46.
[2] Pickens JT (1981). "Sedative activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content". Br. J. Pharmacol. 72 (4): 649–56. PMID 6269680.
[3] Nicholson, AN; C Turner, BM Stone, and PJ Robson (June 2004). "Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults" (fee required). J Clin Psychopharmacol 24 (3): 305–13. doi:10.1097/01.jcp.0000125688.05091.8f. ISSN 0271-0749. PMID 15118485. Retrieved on 3 May 2007.
[4] Straus, Stephen E. (15 August 2000). "Immunoactive cannabinoids: Therapeutic prospects for marijuana constituents". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97 (17): 9363–9364. doi:10.1073/pnas.180314297. PMID 10931962.
[5] Mechoulam R, Peters M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Hanus LO (August 2007). "Cannabidiol - recent advances". Chemistry & Biodiversity 4 (8): 1678–1692. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790147. PMID 17712814.
[6] Zuardi, A.W; J.A.S. Crippa, J.E.C. Hallak, F.A. Moreira, F.S. Guimar
Post edited by c-ray on
"One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
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Comments

  • SpringsSprings Fall Posts: 1,194
    edited February 2009
    [URL="http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/36/9537"]http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/36/9537

    [quote]
    Nonpsychoactive Cannabidiol Prevents Prion Accumulation and Protects Neurons against Prion Toxicity

    Sevda Dirikoc,1 Suzette A. Priola,2 Mathieu Marella,3 Nicole Zs
    " Forgiveness is divine, but never pay full price for late pizza."
  • guest Posts: 24,389
    edited February 2009
    you go bro!

    ps: plenty of cbd in my chemo.(by common concensus, soon to be tested...)
    Peace.
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited February 2009
    prions eh?
    did someone say mad cow disease?
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • westmoreland Junior Member Posts: 5
    edited February 2009
    The disclosure;83540 said:
    you go bro!

    ps: plenty of cbd in my chemo.(by common concensus, soon to be tested...)
    Peace.
    Which Chemo, you the breeder ?
  • guest Posts: 24,389
    edited February 2009
    No breeder.
    mtl chemo is a term we use to designate am extremely strong phenotype that has been here for a while, but is now very tired.
  • love me Junior Member Posts: 1
    edited July 2009
    nice read, i don't yet understand it all, but will try to learn enough to keep up.

    is there a minimum daily amount of cbd to have medicinal effects?

    hemp grows wild where i live, whats the best way to take advantage of its cbd , extract it using butane or as a cannabis butter?

    should i try to make a cross with wild hemp x white rhino for personal use?

    thanks your answer could save lives.
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited October 2010
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited October 2010
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • plantbuilderplantbuilder power vs precise language Posts: 2,859
    edited October 2010
    fuck
    'either they kill me or you do' https://www.youtube.com/user/plantbuilder
  • spacemanspaceman Civilized worm Posts: 8,537
    edited October 2010
    i agree why are they testing those strains.,.,
    There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die.
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited October 2010
    hunza
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited October 2010
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited October 2010
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • Green SupremeGreen Supreme Plant Manager Heaven BCPosts: 17,347
    edited November 2010
    Nobody wants to plant the corn,everybody wants to raid the barn.
  • Green SupremeGreen Supreme Plant Manager Heaven BCPosts: 17,347
    edited November 2010
    Nobody wants to plant the corn,everybody wants to raid the barn.
  • Green SupremeGreen Supreme Plant Manager Heaven BCPosts: 17,347
    edited December 2010
    Nobody wants to plant the corn,everybody wants to raid the barn.
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    http://www.blogtalkradio.com/suzannetoro/2011/09/14/besimplyproject-cbd-thinking-this-through.mp3
    Join Suzanne Toro and Sarah Russo from Project CBD as they explore their research and story. is a non-profit educational service dedicated to promoting and publicizing research into the medical utility of cannabidiol (CBD) and other components of the Cannabis plant.

    "We think the reintroduction of CBD-rich Cannabis into the grassroots supply warrants special focus. We support the Society of Cannabis Clinicians' effort tocollect, aggregate and publish data from patients to determine patterns of efficacy-or lack of efficacy.

    -Fred Gardner and Martin Lee
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited January 2012
    from http://www.tropical420.com/2011/05/18/interview-with-sarah-russo-from-projectcbd-org/
    Interview with Sarah Russo, Outreach Coordinator for ProjectCBD
    Posted on May 18, 2011

    High Everyone! Tropical420 here with my latest interview with the Outreach Coordinator for ProjectCBD.org, Sarah Russo! I love to highlight and support strong female forces in the medical marijuana & hemp industries and Sarah Russo has definitely proven herself as one of the female pioneers working on the forefront of the future of our industry. She schools me on her knowledge about the calming component of marijuana called CBD, ProjectCBD's goals, and hemp & medical marijuana activism across the country!

    Alexandra Sussin/ Tropical420: Thank you so much for interviewing with me for WeedTRACKER.com! I love the ProjectCBD.org website and wanted to help you guys get the word out about your awesome important project. Please tell us what Project CBD does and what their main goals are?

    Sarah Russo: We're an educational non-profit organization that promotes education and research about cannabidiol (CBD) and other components of the cannabis plant. It was started by two journalists, so our focus has been to cover the news stories about the reintroduction of CBD into the grassroots cannabis supply. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound in cannabis with huge healing potential. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-spasmodic, anti-anxiety, and neuro-proctective properties. CBD also counteracts the negative effects of THC that some people have, such as paranoia, anxiety, and a rapid heart rate. CBD works synergistically with THC and amplifies its healing properties. Some users who were previously turned away from medical cannabis because of the unwanted effects of THC may benefit from using CBD rich cannabis. It was believed that CBD had been virtually bred out of the gene pool in California, due to the desire to breed exclusively for THC content. CBD is making a comeback, and it is estimated that 1 in 500 samples are rich in CBD.

    Our goal at Project CBD is to be the go-to site for CBD related information. We feature a survey created by the Society of Cannabis Clinicians to assess the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of CBD on patient's health. There have been lab studies and a few clinical trials looking at the healing potential of CBD, but the real life study has just begun. That is why the survey is so important. We want to know about first hand experiences with CBD medicine. Everyone is part of this exciting research. If you are a patient, try CBD medicine and tell us how it worked for you. Collectives have a special role in the story, they can be responsible for getting CBD medicine into the mainstream and providing it to patients. Growers have the opportunity to work with new genetics and be on the front lines of cutting edge research. Doctors can help educate their patients about CBD. There is still a massive amount that we are learning about CBD, so Project CBD wants to act as a sponge to soak up this information and share it with the public. If you have CBD related information, we want to know about it. We can also help you educate your community and promote CBD rich medicine.

    Tropical420: Wow, I had no idea it had become so scarce. I have many anxious friends that definitely benefit from the properties of CBD and enjoy a rare sense of 'calm' after medicating with CBD rich strains. There is definitely a lot of great info to absorb on your site. What is it like to be the Outreach Coordinator for Project CBD?

    Sarah Russo: I love my job, PCBD is a very small organization, so we all wear many hats. I enjoy being part of an organization that is cutting edge. I deal with the inquires that come to ProjectCBD.org from patients, collectives, growers, doctors, and anyone else who is interested in the work that we do. I act as the liaison with collectives who are interested in becoming involved with our organization. I also work tables at events to get the word out about Project CBD. I get a lot of responsibility and freedom with my position, which I love. I work mainly from home, so most of the time I can create my own schedule. It is a fun position but practicing research without a grant is a challenge. However, the work is very gratifying and I am very content with my job.

    Tropical420: Sounds like a very interactive job, it's good to know that you are the person to go to if anybody has any PCBD inquiries! How can a collective benefit from working with Project CBD?

    Sarah Russo: Project CBD encourages them to become involved and become a 'Participating Collective' with our organization. We would like to help promote CBD and educate patients about its healing potential. CBD is making a comeback into the grassroots supply and collectives play a key role in making CBD rich strains available to patients and taking part in the data collection effort of the Society of Cannabis Clinicians. If they do not currently provide CBD rich medicine, we can help facilitate connections with those entities that offer CBD rich medicine. If the collective is currently carrying CBD rich medicine, then Project CBD can provide educational materials to help educate their patient base and promote the use of CBD rich medicine.

    Project CBD is asking that collectives notify us when making CBD-rich medicine available to patients. The CBDiary section of our website is the catch all news column and we want to get the word out about what is happening with CBD at your collective. Participating Collectives with Project CBD also have the ability to be a part of a new and exciting part of the medical cannabis movement. They are the front runners in getting CBD rich medicine available to those that may benefit from its use.

    Tropical420: That is great how you can hook up a collective with everything they need to provide their patients with CBD rich strains and information about them! How did you become involved with the medical cannabis community?

    Sarah Russo: I first starting using cannabis when I was 15, but it still took me a minute to realize that a majority of my father's books were about marijuana, and I first became involved with the cannabis community in 2006 in my hometown of Missoula, Montana. Missoula is a lovely college town in the mountains surrounded by nature. I am currently living in San Francisco, CA but Montana will always be home to me.

    In 2006 there was a job opportunity to help collect signatures to put Initiative 2 on the ballot, I-2 as it was known, made cannabis offenses in Missoula county law enforcement's lowest priority. I showed up to get started and met Angela Goodhope, who was the Director for Citizens for Responsible Crime Poly, the organization who was running the signature collection. Angela and I ended up becoming friends and she inspired me to become involved in the community. Before I was involved in the community, I was just a girl who liked to smoke weed and who was pissed off at the system. I realized that I didn't like how some people were all about pot but didn't do anything to address the injustices behind its use and I wasn't going to be one of them any longer. I was fortunate to have the opportunity to work with Angela who had been a very vital part of the cannabis community in Montana and she has been an inspiration to me ever since and I can thank her enough for getting me into activism in general. Cannabis is just one of the issues I fight for. I believe in the right to use a plant that grows in our earth.

    Tropical420: That's really interesting how you got into the industry. I was also perplexed by the way something so harmless could be so demonized, that also helped me become more involved in the community and want to start educating the general public about marijuana's medicinal properties and hemp's endless uses just like you! How do you give back to the community?

    Sarah Russo: In respect to the cannabis community, I believe that my work with PCBD is providing support and information to those who are interested in CBD. I hear from many people each day who are interested in the work we do at Project CBD, and it makes me very pleased to assist those who are wanting to become involved. It is a great feeling to hear from a patient who had been trying to locate CBD rich medicine and got to try it for the first time. That is why I love my job so much, I feel like I am helping people each day. As far as the community at large, I believe that being generous is contagious, so giving as much as you can will benefit yourself and those around you. I have been wanting to volunteer my time with organizations in my Mission District neighborhood working with immigrant rights issues and art activism as well.

    Tropical420: Your work with PCBD has definitely helped the MMJ community immensely and we can't thank you enough for your ongoing work. What is your involvement in the hemp community?

    Sarah Russo: I was involved with the Montana Hemp Council for two years. The Montana Hemp Council is a non-profit organization working to educate people about the benefits of industrial hemp. They also put on the Missoula Hempfest every year, and I was the Volunteer Coordinator for the event. I am very passionate about hemp. While the prohibition of the cannabis plant in general is beyond unacceptable, hemp being illegal is pure insanity. It was patriotic to grow hemp during WW2, and US farmers are missing out by not being able to grow this fantastic crop. I believe it is the large powers that be that don't want to see hemp legalized. It would take out the oil companies, cotton, building materials, everything. It would revolutionize our country and the world. Hemp for victory indeed.

    Tropical420: Exactly! Hemp is naturally anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, resistant to UV rays, it's grown without the use of pesticides while renewing the soil with nutrients, and it's the strongest and longest lasting natural fiber on earth. Ships used hemp rope in WW2 because it was the only thing that wouldn't break in the arctic cold. It was also used in parachutes and George Bush Senior's life was saved when he used his hemp parachute to jump out of a plane shot by enemy fire. So crazy that it's illegal to grow hemp in America. How long have you been a medical marijuana advocate? What are some things you have learned from being a part of this community?

    Sarah Russo: I have been actively involved in the medical cannabis movement for 5 years. Before that I attended protests and such, but wasn't what I call active. The cannabis movement is what got me fired up about activism in general. It was a catalyst for change in my own life. I realized that I was pissed off about how cannabis is viewed in society and that a plant with medical and psychoactive use for thousands of years was illegal. It taught me that complaining about how messed up things are was not doing anything to help the problem. It also made me see things differently. My view of the world and the people that live in it is different now. And I am thankful I was woken up to that new reality.

    Tropical420: Amazing how this plant can change lives and bring people together. Do you remember your first experience with marijuana?

    Sarah Russo: My first experience with marijuana was snowboarding when I was 15. We went up the chair lift and went off into the trees and smoked with about 5 kids from my class. I didn't really get high that time. I remember thinking it was cool, mainly because it was illegal.

    Tropical420: Ha ha, very cool how you 'went off into the trees'. What do you like to do when you medicate?

    Sarah Russo: I like to be active and go for a walk or be in nature. I love to have a project to work on when I am medicated. These days, I generally prefer to use CBD rich cannabis because it is more functional for me. I can do work and be social while medicated which is important to me. I don't like to be lazy and sluggish. I would rather not use cannabis that leaves you feeling stupid and unmotivated. It doesn't jive with me.

    Tropical420: Always nice to prove those myths about 'stoners being lazy' wrong. I am also more motivated to be active and get things done after medicating. What is the best strain you ever had?

    Sarah Russo: My favorite strain is Jamaican Lion, which is a CBD rich variety from the Bay Area. I think it is the most creative strain I have ever had. I think that the THC:CBD ratio is perfect. It makes me feel very energetic and happy. I am also a huge fan of G13, Pineapple, and all the fruity strains. Looks aren't very important to me. I really prefer strains that provide a favorable effect as opposed to ones that look nice.

    Tropical420: Yummy good choices, G13 is definitely a good one! Do you prefer Indica or Sativa?

    Sarah Russo: I like the uplifting effects that are associated with sativa strains. However, through the research I have done, I have realized that Indica versus Sativa is a matter of taxonomy rather than effect. There is a lot of focus on these 2 varieties and the effects they produce. The effect of cannabis on a user is a matter of the phytocannabinoids and other components of the plant, including terpenes. We have just begun to start testing for these compounds. Uncovering how these components affect a user will be the real key to figuring out which varieties are best suited for the effects you desire.

    Tropical420: Cool, a Sativa girl! It will be awesome once people can start creating strains composed of the exact ratio of components that heal their specific issue. What is your preferred way to medicate? Bong, joint, edible, vaporizer?

    Sarah Russo: I love my Volcano, which I try to use as much as possible. When I am on the go , I use joints almost exclusively.

    Tropical420: Vaping is definitely the healthy choice. Do you make edibles?

    Sarah Russo: I have recently started making more edibles. I have made them a couple of times in the past and really enjoyed it. I wanted to start making my own because the edibles that collectives provide are generally too strong and the dosage can be a mystery. I find I generally overdo it with edibles, so making my own is a better way for me to be able to get the proper dosage.

    Tropical420: Good advice. What is your favorite marijuana related movie?

    Sarah Russo: Half Baked.

    Tropical420: Mine too! Do you think medical marijuana will ever be federally legal?

    Sarah Russo: That is the goal. I feel things are changing and I feel I will see it in the next 5 years. Hopefully sooner. Too many people are sitting in jail. And the future is bright for cannabis research. If it was legal, it would be a lot easier to study.

    Tropical420: Seriously right? Cannabis research is way less restricted in other countries, what you guys are doing is so important. What are your future plans to help this community achieve it's ultimate goals for this harmless medicinal plant?

    Sarah Russo: I hope to continue my work with Project CBD and eventually see CBD become readily available and its medicinal effects documented by the mainstream cannabis community. I believe that CBD is a powerful tool to show the nay sayers that cannabis is more than just the familiar THC component. CBD and THC have been most studied, but they are just the tip of the iceberg. There are over 100 cannabinoids in the plant, as well as other components that influence the effect of cannabis in humans. We have only just begun to scratch the surface. I look forward to seeing cannabis testing becoming the norm so that users can know what is in their medicine. It is a very exciting time for cannabis research.

    Tropical420: You are most definitely a female pioneer working with people on the forefront of the future of medical marijuana testing. Is there anything else you would like to say to our readers?

    Sarah Russo: Get your cannabis tested, become well informed.

    Tropical420: Excellent message! Thank you so much again for interviewing with me for WeedTRACKER.com! We will check out ProjectCBD.org and keep up with the CBDiary and will look forward to reading about the medical marijuana scientific breakthroughs and news about cannabis on your site.
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited May 2012


    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited July 2012
    meanwhile, in Israel

    from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/03/israel-highless-marijuana_n_1645488.html
    Israel 'Highless' Marijuana Offers Medical Benefits Without The High

    07/03/2012
    By Maayan Lubell

    SAFED, Israel (Reuters) - They grow in a secret location in northern Israel. A tall fence, security cameras and an armed guard protect them from criminals. A hint of their sweet-scented blossom carries in the air: rows and rows of cannabis plants, as far as the eye can see.

    It is here, at a medical marijuana plantation atop the hills of the Galilee, where researchers say they have developed marijuana that can be used to ease the symptoms of some ailments without getting patients high.

    "Sometimes the high is not always what they need. Sometimes it is an unwanted side effect. For some of the people it's not even pleasant," said Zack Klein, head of development at Tikun Olam, the company that developed the plant.

    Cannabis has more than 60 constituents called cannabinoids. THC is perhaps the best known of those, less so for its medical benefits and more for its psychoactive properties that give people a "high" feeling.

    But cannabis also contains Cannabidiol, or CBD, a substance that some researchers say has anti-inflammatory benefits. Unlike THC, it hardly binds to the brain's receptors and can therefore work without getting patients stoned.

    "CBD plants are available in different forms all over the world," said Klein, adding that the company's plant is free of THC and very high in CBD.

    Tikun Olam began its research on CBD enhanced cannabis in 2009 and about six months ago they came up with Avidekel, Klein said, a cannabis strain that contains 15.8 percent CBD and only traces of THC, less than one percent.

    CANNABIS AS MEDICINE

    Marijuana is an illegal drug in Israel. Medicinal use of it was first permitted in 1993, according to the health ministry.

    Today cannabis is used in Israel to treat 9,000 people suffering from illnesses such as cancer, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease and post traumatic stress disorder, according to Israel's health ministry.

    Drug companies have also been interested in cannabis as a medicine. Britain's GW Pharmaceuticals, with Bayer and Almirall, sells an under-the-tongue spray called Sativex that is designed to minimize highs by manipulating ratios of active ingredients.

    Raphael Mechoulam, a professor of medicinal chemistry at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, said Avidekel is thought to be the first CBD-enriched cannabis plant with no THC to have been developed in Israel.

    "It is possible that (Avidekel's) CBD to THC ratio is the highest among medical marijuana companies in the world, but the industry is not very organized, so one cannot keep exact track of what each company is doing," he explained.

    Although there have been no clinical trials in humans, Mechoulam, who is a leading researcher of cannabinoids, said that Avidekel showed promise as a potent anti-inflammatory.

    Ruth Gallily of the Hebrew University who works for the company and has been studying CBD for more than 12 years, said she has found that the substance has impressive anti-inflammatory qualities. She has been testing the effects of Tikun Olam's CBD-enhanced cannabis on mice and expects clinical trials to begin in a few months.

    Avidekel is a new strain of a plant that is already permitted for medical use so there is nothing stopping patients who are already being treated with marijuana from trying Avidekel. About 10 patients began using it in the past six months, Klein said.

    "The cannabis plant, enriched with CBD, can be used for treating diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, liver inflammation, heart disease and diabetes," she said, adding there are no side effects.

    "It's a huge advantage," said one 35-year-old patient who asked not to be identified, "I can smoke during the day, function with a lot less pain and still be focused, work and drive. It is a great gift."

    The woman began suffering chronic pains after a tumor was removed from her spine. She began treatment with regular THC-containing marijuana eight months ago. Two months ago she started smoking Avidekel.

    "The difference is huge. Before, I would only smoke at the end of the day and stay in pain." Now, she said, with the highless marijuana "my life is so much better."

    Despite Avidekel's highless benefit, Klein does not see regular marijuana disappearing any time soon. THC has its own unique effects that alleviate illness symptoms.

    "Don't worry, I think that cannabis with THC will still be (around)," he said.
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited November 2012
    interestingly/ironically, cbd is a treatment for thc withdrawl symptoms

    from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23095052
    J Clin Pharm Ther. 2012 Oct 24. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12018. [Epub ahead of print]
    Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report.
    Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Queiroz RH, Bergamaschi M, Chagas MH, Zuardi AW.
    Source

    Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo and INCT Translational Medicine (CNPq) - São Paulo Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Sciences Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Abstract

    What is known and Objective:  Cannabis withdrawal in heavy users is commonly followed by increased anxiety, insomnia, loss of appetite, migraine, irritability, restlessness and other physical and psychological signs. Tolerance to cannabis and cannabis withdrawal symptoms are believed to be the result of the desensitization of CB(1) receptors by THC. Case summary:  This report describes the case of a 19-year-old woman with cannabis withdrawal syndrome treated with cannabidiol (CBD) for 10â€Æ'days. Daily symptom assessments demonstrated the absence of significant withdrawal, anxiety and dissociative symptoms during the treatment. What is new and Conclusion:  CBD can be effective for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome.
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited November 2012
    from http://michiganmedicalmarijuana.org/topic/34606-high-c-b-d-strains/
    As mentioned at he cbd project, an effective way to to breed and measure the ratio of thc/cbd is measure that ratio early on in veg eliminating plants that do not fit the desired profile. This would result in much faster results than simply evaluating whatever comes in. Waiting for a plant to finish is much more time consuming. Once you establish which plants meet your criteria you can take cuttings and grow out the plants and then determine the percentages of those components that the finished plants have.
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,732
    edited November 2012
    from http://projectcbd.com/CBDiary.html#Feb14.12
    "It's so backwards," Dixon says of denying vets access to Cannabis. "The number of combat troops that have died over in the middle east is less than the number of veterans who die from suicide in one year. We have plenty of anecdotal evidence that Cannabis is a useful treatment for PTSD, and the pharmaceutical alternatives are toxic and ineffective. CBD-rich Cannabis might prove to be especially useful."

    So far VAMM has attained clones of CBD-rich Omrita, Harlequin, and what Dixon calls "a really nice Cannatonic" variety with a 3:1 ratio and CBDA content peaking at 17%. (SC Labs uses liquid chromatology, a testing method that does not require heating of Cannabis samples. CBD and THC are measured in their acid form, as they are produced by the plant. In their neutral form these compounds are about 13% lighter -thus 17% CBDA transforms to 14.8% CBD.) Dixon is also working to acquire and put into the hands of VAMM clones of three recently identified CBD-rich varieties -ACDC from Mendocino county, The Hope from Sonoma County, and a Headband cross from Southern Humboldt that SC's initial test showed to contain 18% CBDA and <6% THC. </div>
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • Green SupremeGreen Supreme Plant Manager Heaven BCPosts: 17,347
    edited February 2013
    Nobody wants to plant the corn,everybody wants to raid the barn.
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