biochar & terra preta

c-rayc-ray germinatingPosts: 14,823
edited March 2013 in Lancifer's Plants
Post edited by c-ray on
"One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
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  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited July 2006
    from another site:
    http://www.eprida.com
    Eprida offers a revolutionary new sustainable energy technology that will allow us to remove CO2 from the air by putting carbon into the topsoil where it is needed.

    The process creates hydrogen rich bio-fuels and a restorative high-carbon fertilizer from biomass alone, or a combination of coal and biomass, while removing net carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

    image
    The Eprida process is based on the synergy among three key insights:

    First, recent discoveries have revealed an ancient soil management technique from the Amazon basin. For thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived, civilizations there had buried charcoal in tropical soils to make them productive. Those terra preta, or “black earth,” soils still remain bountiful five hundred years later. The charcoal acts like a coral reef for soil organisms and fungi, creating a rich micro ecosystem where organic carbon is bound to minerals to form rich soil.

    To make charcoal, wood is heated with limited oxygen, traditionally in a slow burning heap. With modern technology low temperature charcoal can instead be made by a hybrid pyrolysis process whereby biomass such as wood chips or agricultural waste is heated in a sealed vessel. Once started, this process actually gives off heat while it drives off steam and hydrogen, which can be captured, purified and used for energy. Hydrogen can be used to make transitional fuels such as GTL biodiesel today, or used directly in a fuel cell to make electricity or power vehicles in the future. Making a combination of less energy and charcoal from biomass is the second key ECOSS breakthrough.

    Just burying charcoal in the soil is beneficial. Japanese studies have found that adding up to 10% charcoal increases fertility in most soils, but adding even more charcoal won't hurt and if nitrogen is added to the charcoal it produces an even more effective fertilizer. Most fertilizer is currently produced by using natural gas to extract nitrogen from the air to make ammonia, but this releases one molecule of CO2 for each molecule of ammonia produced. Conventional urea based fertilizers, made from this ammonia, also tend to leach out and wash off into waterways, where they become a serious pollutant causing algae bloom and ultimately dangerously acidifying the oceans.

    The third breakthrough in creating the Eprida ECOSS process came with the discovery that if ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), are all combined in the presence of charcoal they will form a solid, ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) fertilizer inside the pores of the charcoal. About 30% of the hydrogen derived from the biomass will make enough ammonia to combine with all of the charcoal from the same biomass to scrub CO2 flue gases from a power plant, converting all of the ingredients into a slow-release nitrogen fertilizer on charcoal.

    The overall process can put almost all of the carbon that was removed from the air by the biomass back into the soil in a stable form, effectively removing net CO2 from the air. When used with biomass and coal, the process will scrub about 60% of the CO2 out of the flue gases from the coal, as well as all of the SOX and NOX, turning these compounds, which would otherwise contribute to acid rain if released into the air, into valuable constituents in the high-carbon fertilizer.

    Once buried in the ground, the key to ECOSS carbon sequestration is the action of Arbuscular Mychoryzal Fungi. AM Fungi are found on the roots of almost all plants where they bring moisture and nutrients through tiny hair-like tubes called hyphae. The hyphae extend out from the root and can reach into tiny pores in the charcoal where dissolved nutrients and moisture are drawn by a static electric charge. The fragile hyphae exude a glue called glomalin to form a protective sheath around them. This binds together tiny particles of minerals with bits of dead organic matter that would otherwise quickly decompose and return to the air as CO2. The hyphae only live for a few weeks, but the glomalin lasts for 40 years, while aggregates made of many layers of glomalin and particles can last for hundreds of years. Aggregates give soil its tithe and account for 80% of the carbon found in soils. Increasing aggregate formation is the key to long-term carbon sequestration in soils.
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • dpndpn Senior Member Posts: 723
    edited July 2006
    gonna be adding some charcoal to the mix soon... thanx again for the info.
    I do not particularly like the word "work." Human beings are the
    only animals who have to work, and I think this is the most ridiculous
    thing in the world. Other animals make their livings by living, but people
    work like crazy, thinking that they have to in order to stay alive. The
    bigger the job, the greater the challenge, the more wonderful they think it
    is. It would be good to give up that way of thinking and live an easy,
    comfortable life with plenty of free time.
    Masanobu fukuoka
  • Green SupremeGreen Supreme Plant Manager Heaven BCPosts: 17,347
    edited July 2006
    Awesome read C-ray.Thanks for the heads up.Peace GS
    Nobody wants to plant the corn,everybody wants to raid the barn.
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited November 2006
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • smokinbasser really old fart Posts: 135
    edited November 2006
    It sounds like I need to take a hammer to some kingsford briquettes!! Very interesting read.
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited November 2006
    hmm I just checked out the [URL="http://www.fsafood.com/msds/vault/001/001529.pdf"]msds for kingsford briquettes they are mostly just char dust but about 15% limestone and 8% lime.. not sure what the source of the char is though, it could very well be from industrial waste.. good idea though

    another thing I read is that in the olden days (europe I think) they used to prescribe char from different trees for different soil conditions and crops

    think of a tree as a big weed and wonder what type of mineral profile/soil type that a particular tree grows in, if it is cannabis we are growing then perhaps we need to look at trees that would grow natively in a specific environment that the particular type of cannabis that we are growing would do well in...

    the particular trees chosen for instance should grow freely/unabated in the same environment that a cannabis plant would thrive and become weedy in, like in the midwest prairies of USA, or steppes of Russia and China for instance

    these particular trees would be considered the top dogs of those regions and would host an evolved microlife colony, and the char from those trees would be most conducive to hosting similar microlife associations

    in prairies from what I gather there is a natural burn and char cycle anyways, due to the dry summer environment and abundance of lightning/thunderstorms, so birch and poplar trees I am guessing would be a good choice, fast growing weed trees, and they are also N fixers so likely they and their char caverns are naturally hosts and food supplies for N fixing bacteria as well
    here on the coast I would say alder is probably good, though the pH here is generally too low to support wild cannabis
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited November 2006
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited November 2006
    http://www.murayoshi.com/en/practical.html
    scroll down the page for gardening data
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited November 2006
    more turbo linkage
    from http://www.eprida.com/hydro/yahoo2004.htm
    What can you do? Read up on terra preta (some of the published works
    made a part of the above patent application), look at references in
    the Eprida website or convince yourself by testing. Grow your favorite
    plant in two pots, one with 1/3 wood charcoal (soak this in fertilizer
    for several days), 1/3 sand and 1/3 available soil. Plant the other
    with your normal method for potting plants. Fertilize and watch them
    grow. Watch it for three seasons and note the differences. (Many have
    noted their best results in the second year as microbial populations
    increase) Alternately, use a microbe/fungi inoculation to speed the
    response.
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited November 2006
    from http://www.georgiaitp.org/carbon/PDF Files/Abstracts/Session1C.pdf

    [QUOTE]Unlocking microbial communities in Terra Preta: nucleic acid extraction and purification as keys to characterizing biology in black carbon soils

    Brendan O'Neill (ben7@cornell.edu) and Janice Thies (jet25@cornell.edu)
    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University 706 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853

    Amazonian Dark Earths, or Terra Preta (TP) soils, are noted for both their high fertility and black carbon (BC) content. The anthropogenic addition of charred plant material, BC, has altered soil nutrient dynamics and the unique chemistry of TP likely sustains unique microbial populations which play a role in stabilizing their fertility. Using soil from four TP sites in the Brazilian Amazon, we sought to elucidate major differences in bacterial populations in these soils as compared to soil sampled from adjacent oxisols. We used a most probable number dilution extinction method to estimate the numbers of bacteria culturable in a liquid minimal medium (R2A). For each site, numbers of culturable bacteria were equivalent to or higher in all TP soils as compared to adjacent oxisols. We subsequently used a direct cell lysis protocol to extract total soil DNA using a commercial kit (Bio101
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • The CannarchistThe Cannarchist Super Moderator Posts: 3,357
    edited November 2006
    "but may point toward an analogous effect of BC in other ecosystems."

    True dat....
    Trailer trash hippie redreck
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited December 2006
    from: http://www.eaglequest.com/~bbq/charcoal/
    1. Using a cold chisel prepare the drum by making five 50mm (2in) holes in one end and completely removing the other. Knock-up the cut edge of the open end to form a ledge (Note, the lid will have to placed back on this ledge and made airtight).
    2. Position the drum, open end upwards, on three bricks to allow an air flow to the holes in the base.

    3. Place paper, kindling and brown ends (incompletely charred butts from the last burn) into the bottom of the drum and light.

    4. Once it is burning well, load branchwood at random to allow air spaces until the drum is completely full. Keep the pieces to a fairly even diameter but put any larger ones to the bottom where they will be subjected to a longer burning.

    5. When the fire is hot and will clearly not go out, restrict the air access around the base by using earth placed against it, but leaving one 100mm (4in) gap. Also place the lid on top, leaving a _small_ gap at one side for smoke to exit.

    6. Dense white smoke will issue during the charring process. When this visibly slows, bang the drum to settle the wood down, creating more white smoke.

    7. When the smoke turns from white (mainly water being driven off) to thin blue (charcoal starting to burn) stop the burn by firstly closing off all air access to the base using more earth, and secondly by placing the lid firmly on its ledge, and making it airtight by the addition of of sods and soil as required. The burn will take between three and four hours.

    8. After cooling for about 24 hours, the drum can be tipped over and the charcoal emptied out onto a sheet for grading and packing.

    Source: Traditional Woodland Crafts. Raymond Tabor. Published by Batsford,London,UK ISBN 0-7134-7138-7
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    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited December 2006
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • a_goodman Posts: 1,313
    edited December 2006
    "Did someone say Terra Preta?":hombre:


    By Eric Biksa

    In 1542 a Spanish Conquistador by the name of Francisco de Orellana returned to Spain to tell an audience of his trip in search for a city of gold along the Rio Negro, one of the largest rivers in the Amazonian basin in South America. Obviously, the city of gold never surfaced, but he did tell his audience that he encountered advanced civilizations; some virtual cities, that were sustained in part with agricultural crops. Later, when Spanish missionaries returned to the area, they found no indication that the civilizations claimed by Francisco de Orellana ever existed. Later more modern scientists also discredited his claims, saying that the poor soil conditions largely due to weathering (soil erosion) were not capable of producing crops, therefore unable to feed civilizations.

    That was up until recently. Researchers from elevated views noticed lush bands of growth amongst native vegetation. They were apparently deliberate in patterns and seemed to be numerous in areas. Closer observation has now revealed that these strips of land were indeed deliberate, and were the product of ancient agricultural practices.

    So what?

    One of the interesting things about this phenomenon is that although rainforest soils would seem productive, they are actually quite inhospitable in terms of cultivating crops other than native species. This is due to a number of factors. Rainforest areas receive copious quantities of precipitation. As a result, many nutrients are leached from the soil, leaving them relatively in fertile. In conjunction with lowered amounts of SOM (Soil Organic Matter) due to rapid decomposition from warm, moist, and acidic conditions the oxisolic soil types native to the region are not all that capable of producing a variety of agricultural crops needed to sustain a growing and hungry population. Oxisolic soils are known to be the poorest producing of all the forest soils. Rather they are most often mined for there silicate, iron, or aluminum content.

    However, researchers have named theses newly discovered bands of productive soil Terra Preta and Terra Mulata. Translated from Spanish, “ terra preta” means “Indian Black Earth”, while “terra mulata” translates to something more like “Indian Brown Earth”.

    Terra preta soils are characterized by their high black carbon content (>9%), high phosphate levels, high cation exchange capacity (CEC), relatively mild acidity, and retention of trace metals in the soil. It also seems to retain soil organic matter (SOM) at significantly greater levels than surrounding native soils.

    A key area of interest for anybody with a vested interest in agriculture (pretty much anybody who eats) and especially for growers is the sustainability of these soils. They exist in surroundings that dictate that they should be infertile. Even after over 200 years of weathering by the toughest conditions nature has to offer they continue to exist relatively unchanged. Most research suggests that terra preta soils stability stems from their relatively high concentration of black carbon in the SOM (soil organic matter) which in some cases has been as high as 35%. Incidentally, terra preta soils contain a relatively high concentration of humic acids, which may have risen in part to the weathering of the black carbon. The humic acid fraction of the soil chelates and complexes many plant nutrients, helping to prevent them from being leached or weathered from the soil. High phosphate contents and trace minerals are another factor in the equation.

    Like a lot of good things in life, these soils didn't happen on their own. The native farmers to the region practiced “slash and char” methods, rather than “slash and burn”. Current practices of clearing jungle land for agriculture incinerate native vegetation. This removes most of the organic matter available for the eco-system which is required for micro-biological stability. The resulting ashes provide, a quick and short supply of Potash, but further acidify the already acidic jungle soils rendering them even less capable of producing crops. The ancients did not allow the area to be completely burned, but left charcoal, later tilled beneath the soil surface. Villages begain to grow in these farmed areas, as did the refuse discarded by the indigenous people. However, their garbage was not made of plastic, metal, paper, and glass. It was elementally simple-kitchen scraps, pottery shards, and fibers from clothing and other materials.

    This refuse contributed to the SOM levels helping reduce weathering and adding stability to the microbiology of the soil. Sort of like a big composter.

    The richest terra preta soils always contain a significant content of shards from clay pottery. Clay is typically high in phosphates and many trace elements such as iron and silicate and typically has a significant CEC (cation exchange capacity). The clay pottery is also porous. A lot of indoor gardeners are already using clay pottery in their mediums: LECCA stones a.k.a. “grow rocks”.

    The fact that these soils still exist today and are capable of producing crops is worthy of attention and further research. In fact, some locals in these areas sell the soil for potting plants. They have found that as longs as they leave the lower soil profile, the soil is capable of reproducing itself! Quite remarkable; a soil that grows in more ways than one.

    As hydroponic and biological growing methods and products continue to develop, it seems that the old adage “there is nothing new under the sun” comes into play. We have probably already forgotten more than we can learn. So perhaps much of the growing future will have us turning our heads towards the past.

    [CENTER][url=http://www.maximumyield.com/article_sh_db.php?articleID=197&yearVar=2004&issueVar=January/February]!!!Be aware of the three headed monster!!!

    General Key to Foliar Symtoms of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants
    also containing Tenative General Key to Foliar Symptoms of Mineral Toxicities in Plants





    Dolphins, eskimos, who cares? It's all a bunch of tree hugging hippie crap.
    [/CENTER]
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited February 2007
    from http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/
    and
    http://web.archive.org/web/20051109010245/http://www.agnet.org/library/article/eb430.html

    [QUOTE]MICROBIAL FERTILIZERS IN JAPAN

    Michinori Nishio National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences Kannondai 3-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 Japan

    1996-10-01

    This Bulletin discusses microbial products in Japan, where they are used on many farms, particularly by organic farmers who hope that these products will improve nutrient uptake by plants and the quality of their products. It discusses the use of charcoal and rhizobia to stimulate nutrient uptake, and the use of arbuscular mycorrizal fungi (AMF) to help establish vegetation on barren land. The range of commercial AMF products available in Japan is briefly described, and their use and effectiveness in Japanese agriculture.


    ABSTRACT


    INTRODUCTION

    In 1961, Japan enacted the "Fundamental Law of Agriculture", which encouraged farmers to selectively produce vegetables, fruits, forage crops and livestock as well as rice, instead of staple foods such as wheat, barley and corn. The aim of the law was to raise farmers' incomes in response to the rapid growth of the Japanese economy. Consumption of vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs and meats increased with economic growth. Farmers adopted the strategy of increasing crop yields by applying large amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. During the 1960s and 1970s, the yield of many crops per unit area increased dramatically as the result of intensive use of chemical inputs and various soil amendments.

    At present, however, the yield of many crops in Japan has reached a plateau. Moreover, the negative effects of heavy applications of chemical inputs are becoming apparent, in terms of both production and the environment, especially in the case of vegetables. Physiological disturbance of plant metabolism is common, due to the accumulation of excess plant nutrients in the soil. The spread of soil-borne diseases is a threat to vegetable production, especially where monoculture is prevailing. Pollution of underground and surface water by nitrates is sometimes reported from vegetable producing areas. Quality deterioration, in terms of a decrease in the content of vitamins and sugars, is becoming a subject of concern. All these factors are giving farmers an interest in the function and utilization of soil microorganisms, as a way of repairing the damage from the overuse of chemical inputs.

    Many farmers in Japan are showing a strong interest in the utilization of microorganisms to help:

    * Stimulate plant nutrient uptake;
    * Provide biological control of soil-borne diseases;
    * Hasten the decomposition of straw and other organic wastes;
    * Improve soil structure; and
    * Promote the production of physio-logically active substances in the rhizosphere or in organic matter.

    The main incentive for farmers to use microorganisms seems to be that they hope to increase the yield or quality of their crops at a relatively low cost, without a large investment of money and labor. Although many microbial materials are sold commercially, most of them are not microbiologically defined, i.e. the microorganisms contained in the products are not identified, and the microbial composition is not fixed. Many of these commercial products are advertised as if they could solve any problem a farmer is likely to encounter. Because most extension advisors lack any knowledge of microbial products, confusion and trouble frequently occur.

    In this report I would like to describe the present situation of microbial technologies in Japan, focusing on the practical use of various products and their potential.


    UTILIZATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    More than 50% of upland and grassland soils in Japan are volcanic ash soils (Andosols), which transform phosphate into unavailable forms by chemical bonding with aluminum ions. Phosphate availability is therefore one of the strongest limiting factors on Japanese upland and grassland farms. At present, this problem is being overcome by a heavy basal dressing of a mixture of superphosphate and fused phosphate. Although these heavy applications have contributed to a remarkable increase in yields of many crops, many vegetable fields have accumulated phosphate at levels which inhibit plant growth. On the other hand, most grasslands are still deficient in phosphate, because enough chemical phosphate is being applied only when they are reclaimed. Therefore, there are two types of Andosols in Japan; one contains a sufficient amount of phosphate, and one does not. In both cases, there have been attempts to use arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) for soil amelioration.


    Utilization of Indigenous AMF by the Application of Charcoal

    The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and Okano 1991).
    Stimulation of Alfalfa Growth by Charcoal Application

    Table 1 shows the results obtained with alfalfa in pot experiments. The soil used was a volcanic ash soil with very low phosphate availability. Although alfalfa growth was very poor without applied fertilizer, it was improved by the application of small amounts of fertilizer, and even more by the application of charcoal with the fertilizer.

    Four sets of pots were prepared. Each set received the same amount of fertilizer (2 g N, 4.4 g P and 8.3 g K/m2). Set [F] received only fertilizer. The others received fertilizer and also rhizobia [F+R], 1,000g/m of charcoal [F+C], and rhizobia plus charcoal [F+R+C]. The charcoal used was a commercial product made of bark from several kinds of deciduous broad-leaved trees. Particle composition was >2mm, 24%; 1-2mm, 18%, and Stimulation of Nutrient Uptake by Charcoal Application

    The amount of nutrients (N, P, K) absorbed by the shoots showed a trend similar to that of the shoot fresh weight (Table 1). The amount of N fixed by the nodules and transported to the shoots was calculated by subtracting the N content of the shoots of the plants not inoculated with rhizobia from the N content of the inoculated plants ([F+R]-[F], [F+R+C] - [F+C]). The addition of charcoal increased this amount of N 2.8-4.0 times, and the ARA by 6.2 times (Table 2). Added charcoal also increased the nodule weight by 2.3 times.

    Fig. 1 shows the relationship between the increment of P and N associated with rhizobial inoculation in comparison with the non-inoculated alfalfa ([F+R] - [F] and [+R+C] - [F+C]). A significant correlation was observed between the increments of P and N, suggesting that the stimulation of nitrogen fixation by charcoal addition may be due to the stimulation of P uptake.
    Relationship between Charcoal Application and AMP

    The relative values of the shoot fresh weight and the degree of AMF infection were determined on the basis of the values of [F+R]. A significant correlation was observed between the shoot weight and AMF infection (Fig. 2).

    When the soil was sterilized by chloropicrin, alfalfa growth was greatly reduced, even with the application of the same amount of fertilizer shown in Table 1. The stimulatory effect of charcoal on plant growth also diminished. On the other hand, vigorous plant growth and the stimulatory effects of charcoal addition were clearly observed when the sterilized soil was mixed with a large amount of native soil (Fig. 3). This clearly indicates that the stimulatory effect of added charcoal may appear only when a certain level of indigenous AMF are present.


    MECHANISM WHEREBY CHARCOAL STIMULATES THE GROWTH OF AMF

    Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism. Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter of more than 100
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    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited March 2007
    from http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/files/pt2005025.pdf
    Wood vinegar is a byproduct from charcoal production. It is a liquid generated from the gas and combustion of fresh wood burning in airless condition. When the gas is cooled, it condenses into liquid. Raw wood vinegar has more than 200 chemicals, such as acetic acid, formaldehyde, ethyl-valerate, methanol, tar, etc. Wood vinegar improves soil quality, eliminates pests and controls plant growth, but is slightly toxic to fish and very toxic to plants if too much is applied. It accelerates the growth of roots, stems, tubers, leaves, flowers, and fruit.

    In certain cases, it may hold back plant growth if the wood vinegar is applied at different volumes. A study shows that after applying wood vinegar in an orchard, fruit trees produce increased amounts of fruit. Wood vinegar is safe to living matters in the food chain, especially, insects that help pollinate plants.

    Wood vinegar is made from burning fresh wood in a charcoal kiln, made from a 200-liter oil drum and 120-cm tall concrete chimney with a 4-inch diameter.

    The kiln contains 63-83 kg of fresh wood. Wood good for vinegar must have a heartwood.

    Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (FFTC)
    5F, 14 Wenchow St., Taipei 106, Taiwan ROC
    Tel.: (886 2) 2362 6239 Fax: (886 2) 2362 0478
    E-mail: [email]fftc@agnet.org[/email] Website: www.fftc.agnet.org

    Agricultural Chemistry Group, Agricultural Production
    Sciences Research and Development Office
    Department of Agriculture, Thailand
    Paholyothin Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
    Tel. 66-2579-3579 Fax. 66-2940-5736
    E-mail : [email]panpimon@doa.go.th[/email]

    Fig. 1. Pile wood in the kiln.
    Fig. 2. (a) Put tile at the top of the chimney. (b) The steam is condensed into liquid. (c) Collect the vinegar drops from the bamboo or plastic pipe.


    Process

    1. Cure wood that has heartwood and bark for 5-15 days.
    2. Pile wood in the kiln (Fig. 1). Close the kiln and cover every hole with clay. Burn it at 120-430C.
    3. After 1 hour, put a tile at the top of the chimney (Fig. 2). If brown or dark brown drops appear on the tile, allow smoke to flow through a bamboo pipe so that the hot steam may be condensed into liquid.
    4. Place a vessel to collect the vinegar drops from the bamboo pipe.
    5. If wood is burned for 12-15 hours in a 200-liter oil drum kiln, it should produce 2-7 liters of wood vinegar. At this stage, it is called raw wood vinegar.
    6. Leave the raw wood vinegar for 3 months to become silted. The vinegar will turn yellow like vegetable oil. After which, it will turn light brown and the tar will become silted. The top content will be a light, clear oil. Remove the tar and light oil, as Fig. 3. The wood vinegar well as the dark brown translucent oil and the remainder will be sour vinegar (Fig. 3).


    Application

    Blend with water in a ratio of 1:50 (1 liter wood vinegar and 50 liters water), or up to a ratio of 1:800 (1 liter wood vinegar and 800 liters water). Spray it over plant shoots.

    Wood vinegar, like hormones, will be absorbed into twigs, trunks, or leaves. Plants will be stronger, and leaves will be greener and resistant to pests and diseases.


    Benefits

    1. Farmers can produce wood vinegar from branches trimmed from trees.
    2. Wood vinegar is safe to human beings, animals, plants, and environment.
    3. Wood vinegar helps plants to grow better and stronger, and be resistant to pests and diseases.
    4. Crop produce is high quality and safe.
    5. Low cost of production attributed to savings from cost of chemicals.
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    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited June 2007
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited June 2008
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • purplehaze2 Senior Member Posts: 839
    edited June 2008
    wow c-ray awesome find ,thats killer about the ancient people that were there thousand of years before the first europeans and that charcoal is still kicking ass, I was away for a day and I felt like I missed a class.
  • purplehaze2 Senior Member Posts: 839
    edited June 2008
    I just tried to order my bincho and they have to email me back about the prices,the bincho kicks ass compared to th e fertilizer,the bincho doubled the leaf sites,this is good stuff. IM wondering if you woud just use it alone,or would you have to add anything else.I would think stand alone becuase it says it acts like a reef in the water and reefs are very sensitive to change.
  • purplehaze2 Senior Member Posts: 839
    edited June 2008
    that guy is in the phillipines,the reason I say this is becuase thats a bottom of a tea-pea hut ,that the locals make.I wish I could make my own vineger I think that would give off a signal.
  • guest Posts: 24,389
    edited July 2008
    Hey buddy,

    Check this forum for terra preta at hypography science forums, very good resource :-)

    http://hypography.com/forums/terra-preta/
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited March 2009
    little video from the [URL="http://www.biochar-international.org"]International Biochar Initiative



    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited March 2009
    another vid





    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • DOZEEDOZEE Herb-Smith Posts: 1,609
    edited March 2009
    really cool. you guys almost make me wanna grow in soil...
    **DISCLAIMER: I am not currently, nor have I ever grown, smoked, or even seen real marijuana. All of the pictures posted here by me are not my own and I would never think of breaking any law of the United States, no matter how antiquated or stupid.**
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited March 2009
    when you say 'you guys' are you talking about the worms?
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited March 2009
    from http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/03/30/biochar.warming.energy/index.html
    check the video here -> http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/03/30/biochar.warming.energy/index.html#cnnSTCVideo

    [QUOTE]Can 'biochar' save the planet?
    Tue March 31, 2009

    ATHENS, Georgia (CNN) -- Over the railroad tracks, near Agriculture Drive on the University of Georgia campus, sits a unique machine that may hold one of the solutions to big environmental problems like energy, food production and even global climate change.

    Biochar's high carbon content and porous nature can help soil retain water, nutrients, protect soil microbes.

    "This machine right here is our baby," said UGA research engineer Brian Bibens, who is one of a handful of researchers around the world working on alternative ways to recycle carbon.

    Bibens' specialty is "biochar," a highly porous charcoal made from organic waste. The raw material can be any forest, agricultural or animal waste. Some examples are woodchips, corn husks, peanut shells, even chicken manure.

    Bibens feeds the waste -- called "biomass" -- into an octagonally shaped metal barrel where it is cooked under intense heat, sometimes above 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the organic matter is cooked through a thermochemical process called "pyrolysis".

    In a few hours, organic trash is transformed into charcoal-like pellets farmers can turn into fertilizer. Gasses given off during the process can be harnesed to fuel vehicles of power electric generators.

    Biochar is considered by many scientists to be the "black gold" for agriculture.

    Its high carbon content and porous nature can help soil retain water, nutrients, protect soil microbes and ultimately increase crop yields while acting as natural carbon sink - sequestering CO2 and locking it into the ground.

    Biochar helps clean the air two ways: by preventing rotting biomass from releasing harmful CO2 into the atmosphere, and by allowing plants to safely store CO2 they pull out of the air during photosynthesis. See more about how biochar works
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
  • LungusLungus Weed Wizard Posts: 1,388
    edited March 2009
    Q. Would used activated charcoal from Can filters be suitable for terra preta?
    [SIGPIC]image[/SIGPIC]
  • c-rayc-ray germinating Posts: 14,823
    edited March 2009
    if it's made from coconut shells then definitely
    "One cannot develop taste from what is of average quality but only from the very best."
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
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